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· Introduction
· Kentel 1
· Kentel 2
· Kentel 3
· Kentel 4
· Kentel 5
· Kentel 6
· Kentel 7
· Kentel 8
· Kentel 9
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· Kentel 11
· Kentel 12
· Kentel 13
· Kentel 14
· Kentel 15
· Kentel 16
· Kentel 17
· Kentel 18
· Kentel 19

Kentel pemzek

Un daol vras, taolioù bras

== Lesson 15 == Mutations affecting nouns after the article and attributive adjectives


Y1. Mutation after the article

The article sometimes causes a mutation of the initial consonant of nouns. There are 4 distinct cases :
  1. Singular masculine nouns
  2. Singular feminine nouns
  3. Plural masculine nouns referring to people??
  4. Other plurals
These 4 cases can in fact be split into 2 groups :
  1. Masculine singular nouns and plural nouns (other than masculine ones referring to people), with only one possible mutation : K / C'H
    Kazh, ar c'hazh
    kadorioù, ar c'hadorioù
    Kelenner, ar c'helenner
    kelennerezed, ar c'helennerezed
  2. Feminine singular nouns and masculine plurals referring to people, which undergo soft mutations (but not completely - /D/ does not mutate).
    • K/G
      Kador, ar gador
      kelennerien, ar gelennerien
    • P/B
      Paner, ar baner
      paotred, ar baotred
    • T/D
      Taol, an daol
      tud, an dud
    • G/C'H
      Godell, ar c'hodell
      Gallaoued, ar C'hallaoued
    • GW/W
      Gwerenn, ar werenn
      Gwenediz, ar Wenediz
    • B/V
      Boest, ar voest
      bugale, ar vugale
    • M/V
      Mamm, ar vamm
      mistri, ar vistri

Y2. Irregular mutations

In the singular :
  1. Tra, un dra vat mutates as if it were feminine, despite being masculine : we say daou dra.
  2. Plac'h is feminine but does not mutate : ur plac'h
  3. Dor is feminine, and becomes an nor.
In the plural : Masculine nouns referring to people with the ending -où do not mutate :
an tadoù

Y3. Mutation of attributive adjectives

As a general rule, attributive adjectives of mutable nouns (feminine singular and masculine plurals referring to people, except those ending in -où) undergo mutation by softening.
Un daol vras
ur baner gozh
Tud vras
studierien gozh
But tadoù kozh
However, there are exceptions to this rule (see next lesson).
(Also, take a look at the summary of mutations.)

Y4. Collective nouns

Ordinary nouns are singular, and their plural is generally formed by adding plural endings, such as -où or -ed. However, there are also collective nouns, which are plurals whose singular is formed by adding the feminine singular ending -enn :
and therefore we have un domatezenn

Y5. Ma hini, da re ...

Hini replaces a singular noun, whereas re replaces a plural one. If preceded by a possessive pronoun (ma, etc.), they correspond to possessive pronouns in English (mine, yours, etc.) :
Ma levr, ma hini
Ma levrioù, ma re

Y6. Comparative

This can be indicated by adding the ending -oc'h to an adjective :
Ker, keroc'h
bras, brasoc'h
There are some special cases :
kozh, koshoc'h
and irregularities :
mat, gwelloc'h
The second part of the comparison is introduced by the preposition eget :
Koshoc'h eo ar brezhoneg eget ar galleg

Y7. Eget

The preposition eget, like all prepositions, cannot be followed by a personal pronoun, as it has its own personal forms. (See kentel 25.)

Y8. Re

Re, when used as an adverb or a pronoun, causes a soft mutation :
Re vras out !
Pelec'h emañ ar re vihan ?
Kentel pemzek
· Divizioù
· Gerioù
· Soniadouriezh
· Yezhadur
· Poelladennoù