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· Introduction
· Kentel 1
· Kentel 2
· Kentel 3
· Kentel 4
· Kentel 5
· Kentel 6
· Kentel 7
· Kentel 8
· Kentel 9
· Kentel 10
· Kentel 11
· Kentel 12
· Kentel 13
· Kentel 14
· Kentel 15
· Kentel 16
· Kentel 17
· Kentel 18
· Kentel 19

Kentel pemp

Gwenn eo ar paper / Ar paper zo gwenn. Ar renadenn-anv

== Lesson 5 == Eo / Zo. Possession


Y1. Showing possession in noun complements

The possessor word follows the noun. No article is used in these type of sentences. Compare :
Un ti eo
Ti Yann eo
Ti ar paotr eo
Ti paotr Kallag eo
(It's a house. It's Yann's house. It's the boy's house. It's the boy from Kallag's house.)
Certain Breton place names sum up the rule neatly :
Mor Breizh
Penn ar Pont
Douarnenez (Douar-an-enez)
(Sea of Brittany i.e. the Channel, Head of the Bridge, Land of the Isle)
If there is no article, there is no mutation :
Ur c'hi eo
Ki Yann eo
Kafe Soaz eo
Ar c'hafe eo
Kafe eo

Y2. Mutations

Apart from the mutation of masculine nouns, the article also causes the mutation of feminine nouns (which are studied inKentel pemzek.)
In the new vocabulary for this lesson we have the example :
bag, ar vag

Y3. The plural of nouns

For most common nouns it is generally made :
  • by -où, as in
  • or by ioù, as in
There are also plural nouns called collective (which are studied in Kentel 16). Here :

Y4. The verb bezañ

Zo is used instead of eo when the subject comes before the verb. Compare:
  • Bras eo Yann : Complement + verb EO + subject
  • Yann zo bras : Subject + verb ZO + complement
What is the difference between the two ? From the point of view of information, they are roughly the same. The difference in meaning is that they answer different questions :
Penaos eo Yann? - Bras eo Yann. (N'eo ket bihan).
Piv zo bras? -Yann zo bras. (N'eo ket Paol).
( In English this difference in meaning is made through intonation. What's Yann like? He's TALL. (He's not SHORT). WHO's tall? YANN is. (not Paol).) It's the first word of the sentence which answers the question, and gives the precise meaning.
Zo also has the meaning there is/are (See Kentel eizh).
Kentel pemp
· Divizioù
· Gerioù
· Soniadouriezh
· Yezhadur
· Poelladennoù